Common Code Technologies


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The cornerstone technologies used by most websites to create visually engaging webpages, user interfaces for web applications, and user interfaces for mobile applications are

  • HTML
  • CSS
  • JavaScript
  • AJAX
  • PHP.

It’s the technogies you should know. Or at least have heard about 😉

We differentiate between technologies that are executed on the CLIENT-SIDE (Browser) and on the SERVER-SIDE:

client-server-side

Client-side (browser) executed technologies:

HTML

HyperText Markup Language, commonly referred to as HTML, is the standard markup language used to create web pages. Web browsers can read HTML files and render them into visible or audible web pages. HTML describes the structure of a website semantically along with cues for presentation, making it a markup language, rather than a programming language. HTML is executed on the client’s side (browser). (Wikipedia). See HTML intro here.

CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML (but also others). CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content from document presentation, including aspects such as the layout, colors, and fonts.[3] This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple HTML pages to share formatting by specifying the relevant CSS in a separate .css file, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural contents. Like HTML, it is also executed on the client side (browser). See CSS intro here.

JavaScript and jQuery

JavaScript is a high-level dynamic programming language. The majority of websites employ it and it is supported by all modern web browsers. No plug-ins are required, but users have the option to disable JavaScript in their browser. Since the introduction of AJAX (see below), JavaScript  has become the leading language for dynamic web programming. Javascript is typically executed  on the client side (by the browser), but can also be executed on the server side. Large JavaScript libraries (jQuery) in the web are simplifying the  JavaScript development by adding thousands of scalable and customizable functions.

AJAX

AJAX is a combination of JavaScript and XML (see below), that helps to create varying/changing contents on a page, without the need to reload it. A simple sample for AJAX are tabs and accordeons in web pages. Complex AJAX samples are the totally personalized pinwalls on facebook or twitter. AJAX, HTML5 and CSS3, all plugin-free technologies, have made obsolete the formerly leading rich content technology Adobe Flash, which required a Flash player (Plug-in barreer). AJAX is client-side mainly, but might also include server-side activities.

XML

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

Server-side executed technologies

PHP

PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language. PHP code may be embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various Web template systems and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter in the web server. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. The majority of open source content management systems, like WordPress used ion this website here, are basically written in PHP. The market share is estimated at 75%.

ASP.net

ASP.NET is an open-source server-side web application framework designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. It was developed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It still has a relatively high market share (approx. 18%), but is rather unpopular for independent developer’s, since it targets mainly on Companies with Microsoft business applications.

Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails, or simply Rails, is a web application framework written in Ruby. Rails is a model–view–controller (MVC) framework, providing default structures for a database, a web service, and web pages. It encourages and facilitates the use of web standards such as JSON or XML for data transfer, and HTML, CSS and JavaScript for display and user interfacing. Example for Ruby on Rails websites are Airbnb, Kickstarter, Github, Pixlr, Groupon and many others. The market share is below 2%.

Others

Java (not to be confound with JavaScript) , Python, Perl, ColdFusion have a market share below 1%.


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